Help me identify prepositional phrase, verbal phrase, or clause?
From your list, I would pick prepositional phrase, though I would say it was an adjectival phrase qualifying ‘books’.
Again, verbal phrase, but I would say noun phrase, acting as object of ‘tell’.
That’s a clause, as it contains a finite verb ‘gave’. Dependent adverb clause of time, modifying ‘gave’ [the man gave].
Clause: when he gave us the Bible, how to be a good friend
A verbal phrase must have a verb and a preposition in the phrase. “go out”, “take down”, etc.